Wednesday, 6 January 2016

Class and status

Gossip Girl


In this clip, it starts off with mostly everyone in formal clothing.  As the clip starts, everyone is on head shots but the camera blurs one face out and focus' on the other as attraction is drawn to his outfit. This shows that they are in a high class as they are well dressed meaning that they are mostly in upper class, a mid and establishing shot is used to show this. There is a maid in the scene which suggest that they are upper class because they can afford for a maid. On the other hand the maid's outfit is a typical maid outfit out of cheap clothing, which this shows us that she is in working lower class. When she asks for a drink off the man, the man's body language towards her is awkward to show that she has spoken out of term for her position in the household, this is shown through a mid shot and a shot-reverse shot to show both of their reactions to each other. The maid's behaviour is different to what stereotypically is expected of her.


The clip starts with a tracking shot as it shows the area of where he lives as he walks, showing its roughness and scruffiness, showing no contrast to his image or costume at all. This shows that he is of lower class. His dialect consists of swearing and harshness of sound as he says words like "dickhead" which people in the lower class are known to say as part of their everyday language because of they are assumed to be uneducated.

The British Film Industry

an independent, non-government body which classifies which classifies and sensors film, video as well as computer and console- based games released in the UK.

promotes understanding and appreciation of Britain's rich film and television heritage and culture

government backed lead agency for film in the UK ensuring that the economic, cultural, educational aspects of film are effectively represented at home and abroad. 

aims to support, develop and promote the art forms of the moving image

the official UK agency for international cultural relations. its film department promotes new British films(features and shorts) internationally principally through festivals and showcases.

Main Production Companies
12 years a slave
Ex machina
Slow west
American Honey
The lobster

 The Beaverton
The wannabe
A girl's best friend
Insidious: Chapter 3

Working Title:
We are your friends
The Danish Girl
                                                      The Programme

Big Talk Productions:
Our zoo
Lives of the infamous Comedey blaps
man up
Cuban Fury

Warp Films:
The Last Panthers
This is England 90
Liam and Lenka
The midnight beast: Quiz Night

Mandela: Long walk to freedom
No-one lives
127 hours

StudioCanal, EntertainmentOne and Entertainment make up the half of the box office within Uk films.
Avengers: Age of Ultron- 12/35,
Ex Machina: 20/35
Star Wars The force Awakens: 20/35
Mad Max: Fury Road: 11/35

Monday, 4 January 2016

Christmas 50: Representation

Discuss the ways in which the extract constructs the representation of ethnicity using the following:

In this extract; it starts with a close up and a tracking shot of the faces of the immigration services who are all white and dressed in suits. This shows that because of they are white, they have higher jobs that are give them a lot of authority and power over people. As this happens, cuts occur as it switches from them to the black person sat on the sofa. This is not only showing that something bad will occur in the scene but also suggests that because of the power and the authority they have through their job role, their ethnicity is interferes with it as it is obviously shown that the black man in the suit is in a stereotypically lower position than the immigration service who are shown to be white. Following this, the black guy is sat on the sofa wearing a suit. This shows that he is doing well with his career which stereotypically would not be seen. His ethnicity is also not taken into consideration to the people he is sat around as he is sat next to a white man in a suit. In addition to this, is the same matter, to when the women says "before I forget, Ben have you taken the forms to house keeping"  this is chosen as a code line to help him and the immigrants.  Through all this equality is shown as everyone else in the scene who are not considered immigrants don't look down on the black or foregin people and work together with them to keep them safe as shown when the white man in the suit runs with 'Ben' to tell Jacquie about the immigration services. During this an tracking shot is used as the run as well as parallel cutting to show that they are hiding.

Jackie is Asain, she is dressed in a suit, showing that she is high up in her job as she has her own office and desk. This follows the stereotype of Asian womem being smart. She also follows this theory as she speaks different languages to speak to the immigrants who don't speak English. All the other immigrants where scrubs to show that they are cleaners and is the sterotype for foreginers as they are potrayed in a way to show that they cant get any other job because of their lack of English language and understand and English qaulifications.  Later in the extract, the black man in the scrub in the closest who helps the woman who has fainted, says 'I wasn't always a cleaner'. This is suggested that he used to be a doctor.  This is the complete opposite top what black people are stereotyped in TV dramas as they would normally put out as they aren't smart enough to have such a career like being a doctor.

Discuss the ways in which the extract constructs the representation of gender using the following: 
In this extract, the dialect used by the men is quite harsh as Ian uses the words "arsehole, bastard" straight after each other. While this is happening, shot-reverse-shot is used to show the emotions of both of the men. Ian using such harsh words in his dialect, show the typical emotions that men have which are portrayed mostly to be full of anger and quite stern. Though, through the conversation between Luther and Ian while shot-reverse-shot is being used- Ian is seen to be tearing up, showing he is weak. Representation for men is completely opposite as this is seen as feminine. In media Ian would be expected to be seen to react in a stern way and keep his emotions locked to look like the bigger person.
Most of the extract is set in dark lighting, this is because not only because of the genre of the show as it is crime but dark lighting exaggerates the point that the show does not go with every media stereotype of Gender and that it will be different. This is also seen when Alice enters the scene; she appears in natural dull make up.  This, like other women stereotyped in media, draws attention away from her being sexualised and shows that she is as equal to the men in the show. In addition to this, it's shown as she has a dark tone within her speech suggesting that she is not innocent and that she is superior.
The extract follows the men stereotype as Luther and Ian both rise their voices. In particular when Luther shouts "enough". This is seen as powerful as he attempts to take control of the situation as he tries to go by the theory of men being the hero of the situation.  However, Alice goes against this as she kills Ian, she becomes the hero in this extract. Being a woman, throughout this extract she is portayed to have a strong character and is also treated that way by the other characters as they show that they are all equal to each other. When she first enters the scene and starts speaking, the camera focus' on her blurrs everything else in the background, again this is to show the power and control she has.

During the fight scene, the background is blurred throughout as well as close ups being used to show how violent, Ian and Luther are being. Mid shots are quickly used to their anger towards each other in a clear way. This behaviour, is not controlling and power is common to be shown in media.
All the men in this extract are wearing dull, dark suits. This shows that they are have a good job which is professional as men are seen to be the most successful gender- linking to power and control of their gender compared to other women.
At the end of the extract, non-diagetic sound of music plays, as the camera focus' in on Luther's face and blurs everyone else' face in the background, building tension towards him as he shows that he is in  pain and showing his weakness therefore it shows the audience that women are not the weaker gender and in this extract is the opposite of that.

Sunday, 3 January 2016

Distribution - What is it?

what part of the supply chain is distributed?
Third part of the film supply chain

what is distribution often referred to?
It is referred to as the 'invisible art'- this is a process known to those only in the industry.

what does 'vertical integration' mean when discussing distribution?
 This means where the three stages- production,  distribution and exhibition are seen as one process instead of being separate.

Why isn't 'vertical intergration' so common in the independent sector?
Producers tend to not have long term economic links with distributers which therefore means they have on links to exhibitors

What three stages are involved in the independent sector?
Licensing, marketing and logistics

What is licensing?
The process by which a distributer requires legal rights to exploit a film.

What are the two levels of licensing?
International Distribution and Local Distribution

What is the advantage of being a major US studio?
They have their own distribution offices in all major territories.

What there different types of rights can you acquire on a local level?
Theatrical  Rights- cinema, Video rights- video and exploration and TV rights.                                                    

What are royalties?
This is paid to the producer by the distributors. This is taken from the profit that the film makes. This profit is then shared equally to the producer for theatrical leg, pay back higher royalties, broadcast rights, and lower for video and DVD. 

What is most effective way to increase interest in a film?
This is releasing it, in a theatrically way- meaning in cinemas.

How long does it take for a film to reach 'free to air' TV?
It takes two years after being released in cinema.


What are the two key questions surrounding the marketing of a film?
'When' and 'How'

What day are films typically released on?

They are in the uk, typically released on Fridays

What will a distributor look at before releasing a film on a Friday?
They will look at the schedule of film realeses on the Fridays and will look at the Friday with the least releases.

What is a 'light' week in terms of distribution?
This is when there are only a few films due to be released on the schedule.

What does it mean to 'position' a film distinctively?
This is distributors making sure that they avoid releasing their film at the same time as similar trait films, this being-genre,story subject and country ang origin.

Why has this become increasingly difficult in the UK?
In recent years, there has been at least 10 new releases a week scheduled.

What are P&A?
This is costs of print and distribution.

How much are P&A costs?
This can range from less than £100,000 to 1 million for release of film in the UK.


Typically how many prints will a 'specialised' film have?
 'specialised' films will have less than 10 prints.

How many will mainstream films have?
They will have over 200 prints.

What is a key factor in developing the profile of a film?
Press Response

How else can awareness of a film be raised?
Advertisement in magazines, newspapers and cinema posters.

Why is distribution in the UK seen as risky?
Cost of print for advertisement is high.

Why are companies looking towards viral marketing?
Because advertisement and marketing is at a low cost and effective.

What are the benefit of a 'talent visit'?
It wins significant editorial coverage for support with release.


In the pre digital film age what was a distributor responsible for?
Arrange transportation of films to the cinemas across the UK.

How much does a 35mm print typically cost?
£1,000. If it is subtitled it would be double the amount.

How many reals is a typical feature print?
This would be either 5 or 6.

Why do 35mm prints get damaged?
Because they go through many different projectors

Where are prints stored?
UK's central print warehouse in West London.

How long did a theatrical release used to last?
This used to last 6 months.


When did digital distribution begin in the UK?
Towards the end of 2005.

Name two advantages of digital distribution:
1) It is cheaper
2) Easier to transport as it can be done through computer files than having to deliver them through delivery vans.

Which countries adopted digital distribution early and why?
China and Brazil started digital distribution

How many screens were digital in 2005 and how many are now?
211 I'm the UK in 2005.

Why has digital distribution radically altered the operating model of distributors?
This is due to the low cost of film copies and digital distribution providing a greater flexibility in distribution.

What has happened to the typical release period for a film?
When film is still in cinema, it is available to pre order on DVD or Blu-ray.

What is a loss leader ansd why are companies using the cinema as a potential loss leader?
 A strategy where a product is sold below its market cost to attract customers. Companies use rthe cinema to this, so therefore it attracts a large audience therefore they will want to get the product, them and a large number of other people that got to the cinema, once or even regularly.

Wednesday, 9 December 2015

Kill List research

It was founded in 2005. 16 June 2010, registered office in Sheffield Digital Campus.  It is sister company to Warp films. It produces feature films in the UK with budgets £400,000 and £800,000. The studio provides a format for new film directors to create films for the first time. This will be on a lower budget scale with less exceptions for high box office revenue. The studio started off with support from organisations from Warp Films, Film Four, UK Film Council, EM Media and Screen Yorkshire.
The intention of this film studio is to add energy and vitality to the British film industry. It has not produced many films. Many of the films that it has produced have been successful and have either won or been nominated for awards like BAFTA.

Studio Canal:
The company was founded in 1988 by Pierre Lescure as a spin-off. The original function was to focus on French and European productions, but later made strategic deals with American production companies
It has strong links to Universal Studios (Studiocanal and Universal Studios were owned by the same company between 2000 and 2004, hence StudioCanal co-produced a fair number of Universal's films).The biggest box office hits for StudioCanal have been Terminator 2: Judgment Day which grossed US$519 million, Basic Instinct which grossed US$352 million and The Tourist which grossed US$278 million worldwide.
StudioCanal acquired film libraries from studios that either went defunct or had merged with it over the years. As a result, the company's library is the third-largest in the world, behind Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer respectively. The company's library includes many other film libraries.

Film Yorkshire:

Film Four :
It is owned by Channel Four Television Corporation. It is known for producing a large number of British films. Their first production was Walter which was released in 1982.It was re-branded as FilmFour, to coincide with the launch of a new Digital TV channel of the same name. Before it was named Channel Four Films or FilmFour International. The company cut its budget and staff significantly in 2002, due to mounting losses, and was re-integrated into the drama department of Channel 4. The name "Film4 Productions" was introduced in 2006 to tie in with the relaunch of the FilmFour broadcast channel as Film4.
UK Film Council:
This was a non-departmental public body set up in 2000 to develop and promote the film industry in the UK. It was constituted as a private company limited by guarantee, owned by the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, and governed by a board of 15 directors. It was funded from various sources including the National Lottery. It distributed more than £160m of lottery money to over 900 films. UKFC closed on 31 March 2011, with many of its functions passing to the British Film Institute. This had happened after 2009 when the UKFC had persuaded the government of the merits of creating a "single public body for film" - in which the UKFC proposed that the British Film Institute should be abolished while the UKFC would take over all its assets and funding. However the legal protections offered to English charities like the BFI, meant that its proposals were dismissed in a QC's report as being legally impossible.
In its own words, the aim of the UKFC was:
"To stimulate a competitive, successful and vibrant UK film industry and culture, and to promote the widest possible enjoyment and understanding of cinema throughout the nations and regions of the UK. The UKFC had a mandate that spans cultural, social and economic priorities
 This represented a significant change from the UKFC's objectives when it was first established, when it stated its purpose was to create a "sustainable UK film industry".
Rook films: Kill list was its first production of a movie it had done.
Optimum Releasing (UK)-
This is also StudioCanal productions. As well as productions it also distributes films. It was named Optimum Releasing (UK) from 2009-2011.
When named Optimum, the company's image was that of a modern and independent distributor of new releases and back catalogues. Films were released under four strands: Optimum Releasing (new theatrical releases), Optimum Home Entertainment (new DVD and Blu-ray releases), Optimum Classic (DVD re-releases of back catalogue films), and Optimum World (new and back catalogue world cinema releases). The latter three appear to be still be in use, despite the company's name change.
Optimum released over 200 films a year and were one of the most prominent distributors in the UK independent film and world cinema market, since the closure of Tartan Films in 2008. Kill List, The Guard, and a re-release of Whisky Galore! were the last titles released under the Optimum Releasing banner. Optimum was acquired by StudioCanal,  in 2006.

In September 2011, the company was renamed StudioCanal UK. Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, Tyrannosaur, Don't Be Afraid of the Dark, The Awakening, and W.E. were among the first films released under the new name.
IFC Midnight (US)-
The company is based in New York. It is owned by AMC Network.
It distributes independent films and documentaries under the IFC Films, Sundance Selects and IFC Midnight brands. It operates the IFC Centre.
IFC has several ventures in video on demand (VOD), available through cable television pay-per-view, Apple iTunes, and formerly Blockbuster's Movielink. In 2006, IFC Films began distributing some films to Apple iTunes.
in 2010, it was announced that IFC Films would be launching a division titled IFC Midnight, the division would focus on releasing horror, sci-fi, thrillers, erotic arthouse, and action.